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UltraSonic Proximity Detector
USPD1There are several distance measuring tequniques like Infra Red, Radio Wave (RADAR), Ultra Sonic Waves (SONAR) each of them have some advantages and disadvantages. Most of the time, optical tequniques are preferred for their high resolution. However they are not best suited for the Transparent objects. As well optical performance is limited in unclean environments. On other hand although ultrasonic distance measurement has lower resolution (fraction of wavelength of sound) it perform much better than optical in unclean environments or with transparent objects. Comparing USPD with GP2D12 distance sensor, USPD can work in dusty enviroment, detect transperent/black objects, however may not be very efficient in detecting "Acoustically soft or damping" objects. USPD output is linear with distance And since it is low power device it can operate continuously. has developed an Ultrasonic Proximity detector with range of 30 cm to 1.5meters. This sensor is capable of detecting distances of objects in front with accuracy of 4-5 cm.
How USPD works
USPD has two ultrasonic sensors one is transmitter and other is receiver both are tuned to resonate at 24 kHz. Microcontroller inside USPD send burst of 24 kHz to transmitter. Then it times and listens for echo from the amplified output of the receiver. Since receiver is also tuned for 24 kHz it acts as 24 kHz band pass filter rejecting every thing else. Once microcontroller receives the echo in donain it calculate the distance of the object. Since it only Looks for the first echo, if there are more objects in front it would only detect the closest one.
Circuit Diagram
Circuit DiagramThis is the circuit we developed for our USPD.
Calibration Chart
calibration ChartThe calibration chart for USPD.